Salbutamol Transport and Deposition in the Upper and Lower Airway with Different Devices in Cats: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach
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Pressurized metered dose inhaler
Pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI) with or without spacers are commonly used for the treatment of feline inflammatory airway disease. During traditional airways treatments, a substantial amount of drugs are wasted upstream of their target. To study the efficiency of commonly used devices in the transport of inhaled salbutamol, different computational models based on two healthy adult client-owned cats were developed. Computed tomographic images from one cat were used to generate a three-dimensional geometry, and two masks (spherical and conical shapes) and two spacers (10 and 20 cm) completed the models. A second cat was used to generate a second model having an endotracheal tube (ETT) with and without the same spacers. Airflow, droplet spray transport, and deposition were simulated and studied using computational fluid dynamics techniques. Four regions were evaluated: device, upper airways, primary bronchi, and downstream lower airways/parenchyma (“lung”). Regardless of the model, most salbutamol is deposited in devices and/or upper airways. In general, particles reaching the lung varied between 5.8 and 25.8%. Compared with the first model, pMDI application through the ETT with or without a spacer had significantly higher percentages of particles reaching the lung (p = 0.006).