Relationship of Motor Impairment with Cognitive and Emotional Alterations in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis
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Introduction. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease that, despite mainly affecting women, is more severe in men and causes motor, cognitive and emotional alterations. The objective of this study was to determine the possible relationship between motor, cognitive and emotional alterations. Materials and Methods. This is a descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study, with 67 patients with MS (20 men and 47 women), who were given the following questionnaires: Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Two-Minute Walk Test (2MWT), Berg Balance Scale, Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI) to analyze their cognitive level, body mass index (BMI) and percentage of muscle mass. In addition, regression analysis was conducted to study the relationship among variables. Results. No significant differences were found between men and women in any of the variables. Regarding the relationship between parameters, the regression analysis was statistically significant, showing an effect of age on the walking and balance performance ( = -0.4, p < 0.05); in addition, there was a relationship between 2MWT and STAI A/S, indicating that both older age and a high anxiety state could impact walking performance. On the other hand, prefrontal symptoms showed moderate relationships with both anxiety and depression ( = 0.6, p < 0.05); thus, high levels of anxiety and depression could increase prefrontal alterations. Conclusions. There is a relationship between motor and emotional variables. Specifically, state anxiety is related to walking resistance. No relationship was found between depression and cognitive alteration and balance or walking ability. Only age has an effect in these relationships.